Blood-filled pouch that balloons out from weak spot in artery wall. If one bursts in the brain, it causes a hemorrhagic stroke.
Imaging test used to view blood vessels. Contrast solution is injected while X-rays are simultaneously taken.
Absence of oxygen.
Drug that helps prevent the clotting (coagulation) of blood. See Heparin, Coumadin, Warfarin.
Medicines like aspirin that reduce blood's tendency to clot but are not true anticoagulants, like Warfarin.
See Antiplatelet therapy.
Total or partial loss of the ability to use words, frequently caused by a stroke that injures the brain's language center.
Abnormal heart rhythm that typically leads to diminished delivery of blood and nutrients to the brain and other organs. This condition can also lead to the formation of blood clots in the heart that can travel to the brain and cause a stroke.
Blood brain barrier
Elaborate network of supportive brain cells, called glia, surrounding blood vessels and protecting neurons from toxic effects of direct exposure to blood.
Pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries resulting from two forces: the heart pumping blood through the circulatory system and arteries resisting the blood flow.
Artery located on either side of the neck; supplies the anterior portion of the brain with blood.
Series of cross-sectional X-rays of the brain and head; also called computerized axial tomography.
Central stroke pain
(Also known as central pain syndrome): pain caused by damage to an area in the central brain. Mixture of sensations including heat and cold, burning, tingling, numbness, sharp stabbing and underlying aching.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF)
The flow of blood through the arteries that lead to the brain, called the cerebrovascular system.
See embolic stroke.
Bleeding that occurs within the brain tissue.
Reduction in brain's blood supply from narrowing of arteries through stenosis (plaque buildup), or blockage from a blood clot.
Waxy substance produced by the liver, also found in foods. Circulates in the Blood, helps maintain tissues and cell membranes. Excess cholesterol can contribute to narrowing of arteries and high blood pressure.
The heart and blood vessels.
Surgical treatment of brain aneurysm by clamping the distorted vessel, surgically removing the bulging section, and closing the opening in the artery wall.
Coagulated blood that can block blood flow in arteries in the brain causing strokes. See also thrombus.
Small, flexible coiled wire that is endovascularly placed in an aneurysm to stabilize it. The body then produces a blood clot inside the aneurysm, strengthening the artery walls and reducing the risk of rupture.
Concentric Medical, Inc.
A medical device company located in Mountain View, CA, focused on the design, development and commercialization of products for restoring blood flow in patients who have experienced an ischemic stroke. www.concentric-medical.com
Anticoagulant, also known as Warfarin.
Duplex Doppler ultrasound
Diagnostic imaging technique using sound waves to visualize blood movement and vascular components.
Language disorder afflicting some stroke patients, characterized by difficulty with speaking or forming words.
Trouble eating and swallowing, afflicting some patients after strokes.
Swelling of a cell that results from the influx of excess water or fluid.
Stroke caused by an embolus, or free-roaming clot. (Also called ischemic stroke.)
Plural of embolus.(i.e. multiple clots.)
Wandering clot that usually forms in the heart, may cause an ischemic stroke if it blocks a cerebral artery. The most common cause of these emboli is blood clots that form during atrial fibrillation.
Free-roaming clot that typically starts in the heart. Can cause embolic or ischemic stroke by blocking blood flow to brain.
Flat layer of cells comprising a blood vessel's innermost lining.
Extracranial and intracranial bypass
Surgery that restores blood flow to a blood-deprived area of the brain by rerouting a healthy artery in the scalp to the area of brain affected by a blocked artery.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) - a specialized type of MR imaging that uses slight changes in blood flow to monitor brain activity.
Also called neuroglia, these cells comprise the blood-brain barrier protecting nerve cells from infection, toxins and trauma while providing them nutrients and oxygen.
Weakness on one side of the body.
Paralysis on one side of the body.
Bleeding in the brain.
Type of anticoagulant.
High blood pressure
Defined in an adult as a systolic pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Can occur in children or adults; particularly prevalent in African Americans, middle-aged and elderly people, obese people and heavy drinkers.
See high blood pressure.
Decreased oxygen delivery to a cell.
Dead area in the brain caused by a loss of blood supply.
Occurs when a vessel in the brain leaks blood into the brain.
Loss of blood flow to tissue caused by blood vessel obstruction.
Series of events lasting for several hours to several days following initial ischemia. Causes extensive cell death and tissue damage.
Areas of damaged, living brain cells arranged in a patchwork pattern around areas of dead brain cells.
Most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes and caused by a blockage of the arteries supplying blood flow to the brain.
Small area of dead brain tissue cause by occlusion of a small artery in the brain. Occurs when a blood clot blocks a cerebral artery.
Magnetic resonance angiography
(MRA) - imaging technique using contrast and magnetic resonance to create an image of the flowing blood through the vessel; often used to detect narrowing or obstruction of the brain arteries.
Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI)- imaging technology using magnetic fields to detect subtle changes in the water content of tissues. The brain images are more detailed than CAT scans but are not as good at detecting an early hemorrhage.
Merci Retrieval System
Medical devices manufactured by Concentric Medical, Inc. for removing clot in patients experiencing ischemic stroke. The system includes three components, the Merci Retriever®, the Merci® Microcatheter and the Merci® Balloon Guide Catheter.
Cell death resulting from anoxia, trauma or any other form of irreversible damage.
Main functional cell of the brain and nervous system.
Medications that protect the brain from secondary injury caused by stroke.
Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator
(rt-PA). Genetically engineered form of t-PA, an anti-clotting substance made by the body.
Traits and lifestyle habits that increase the risk of disease. For stroke, these include smoking, obesity, diet, gender, race/ethnicity, physical fitness and age.
Narrowing of an artery due to the buildup of plaque on the inside wall of the artery.
Sudden neurological affliction caused by interrupted blood flow to the brain.
Bleeding within the outer membranes of the brain into the clear fluid that surrounds the brain.
Breaking up of a blood clot using a clot-busting drug that dissolves the clot.
Drugs used to treat an ongoing, acute ischemic stroke by dissolving the blood clot to restore arterial blood flow.
Formation or presence of a blood clot inside a blood vessel or cavity of the heart. If it lodges in an artery wall, a stroke can result.
Stroke caused by thrombosis. See also ischemic stroke.
See transient ischemic attack.
Tissue necrosis factors
Chemicals released by dying cells that cause secondary cell death during the inflammatory immune response associated with the ischemic cascade.
A clot dissolving drug that can improve long-term stroke patient outcomes if given within the first three hours of symptoms. (Also see recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.)
Transient ischemic attack
(TIA). A short-lived stroke that lasts from a few minutes up to 24 hours; also called a mini-stroke or warning stroke, often preceding an ischemic stroke.
Medications that increase blood flow to the brain by expanding or dilating blood vessels.
Dangerous side effect of subarachnoid hemorrhage in which the blood vessels in the subarachnoid space constrict erratically, cutting off blood flow.
An artery on either side of the neck; supplying the posterior portion of the brain. See carotid artery.
A commonly used anticoagulant, also known as Coumadin®.
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